Obesity is defined by OMA (Obesity Medicine Association) as a “chronic, relapsing, multi-factorial, neurobehavioral disease, wherein an increase in body fat promotes adipose tissue dysfunction and abnormal fat mass physical forces, resulting in adverse metabolic, biomechanical, and psychosocial health consequences.”
Here are some of the main causes and contributing factors of obesity:
1. Genetics: Genetics can play a significant role in a person’s susceptibility to obesity. Certain genes can affect how your body stores and uses fat, as well as your appetite and metabolism.
2. Environmental Factors: The modern environment promotes obesity through factors such as:
– Diet: The availability of high-calorie, low-nutrient foods that are often rich in sugars, unhealthy fats, and processed ingredients can contribute to overeating.
– Sedentary Lifestyle: Increased screen time, desk jobs, and a lack of physical activity contribute to a decrease in energy expenditure, making it easier to gain weight.
– Obesogenic Environment: Built environments that discourage physical activity, such as a lack of sidewalks or safe places to exercise, can contribute to weight gain.
– Food Marketing: Aggressive marketing of unhealthy foods can influence dietary choices, especially among children and adolescents.
3. Dietary Habits: Unhealthy eating patterns can lead to overconsumption of calories and weight gain. Diets high in sugar, saturated fats, and processed foods are associated with obesity.
4. Lack of Physical Activity: A sedentary lifestyle can lead to a decrease in energy expenditure and contribute to weight gain. Regular physical activity helps maintain a healthy weight by burning calories and improving metabolic health.
5. Psychological Factors: Emotional and psychological factors can lead to overeating or unhealthy eating habits. Stress, depression, and certain mental health conditions can contribute to weight gain.
6. Metabolic Factors: Some medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), can affect metabolism and contribute to weight gain.
7. Sleep Deprivation: Lack of sufficient and quality sleep has been linked to weight gain and obesity. Sleep affects hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism.
8. Medications: Certain medications, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, and corticosteroids, can lead to weight gain as a side effect.
9. Social and Economic Factors: Socioeconomic status can influence access to healthy foods, safe recreational spaces, and healthcare services, which in turn can impact weight and health outcomes.
10. Genetic Syndromes: Rare genetic syndromes, such as Prader-Willi syndrome, can lead to excessive hunger and obesity.
11. Obesogens: Obesogens are chemicals present in the environment that have been implicated in promoting obesity by disrupting the body’s normal metabolism and regulation of fat storage. These chemicals can potentially alter how the body processes and stores fat, leading to weight gain or obesity. Examples of potential obesogens include:
– Bisphenol A (BPA): Found in plastics, food containers, and can linings, BPA has been associated with weight gain and metabolic disturbances in animal studies.
– Phthalates: These are chemicals commonly found in plastics, personal care products, and some medications. They have been linked to obesity and insulin resistance.
– Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA): Found in non-stick coatings and stain-resistant materials, PFOA exposure has been linked to weight gain and altered lipid metabolism.
– Organophosphate Pesticides: Some pesticides used in agriculture have been linked to weight gain and metabolic disruption.
– Tributyltin (TBT): An industrial compound used in various products, TBT exposure has been associated with obesity and metabolic dysfunction in animal studies.
12. Gut Microbiome: The gut microbiome has also been linked to obesity and metabolic health. Certain microbial communities within the gut have been associated with a higher likelihood of obesity, while others have been associated with a lower risk. The gut microbiome can influence energy metabolism, inflammation, and the storage of fat in the body. Research indicates that an imbalance in the gut microbiome, often referred to as dysbiosis, might contribute to obesity. Dysbiosis can lead to changes in how the body extracts energy from food, potentially promoting weight gain. Additionally, gut microbes can produce molecules that impact appetite regulation, metabolism, and fat storage, further influencing weight.
It’s important to note that obesity often results from a combination of these factors, and individual susceptibility can vary. Addressing obesity typically requires a comprehensive approach that involves making healthy dietary choices, increasing physical activity, managing stress, getting adequate sleep, and sometimes seeking medical or psychological support.